syringe on a map of Africa.

The Ethics of COVID-19 Vaccine Trials in Developing Countries, Part 2

By Sunnie Ning

In this blog post, I will continue exploring the ethical issues associated with conducting global vaccine trials.

Ethics Review

To determine whether a research design has met the standard of care for the control group and provided informed consent, the proposed study typically must be reviewed by an ethics board. Some scholars have suggested that international studies must receive approval of ethics review boards from all countries involved. Others emphasize the importance of an independent review to minimize conflicts of interest and to ensure public accountability. 

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Vaccine.

The Ethics of COVID-19 Vaccine Trials in Developing Countries

By Sunnie Ning

As more COVID-19 vaccine candidates enter clinical trials, many developing countries are being tapped to participate.

But the history of clinical trials in developing countries is fraught with ethics violations and discrimination. In June, several protests broke out in South Africa over the University of Oxford’s COVID-19 vaccine trial. Demonstrators held signs that said: “We are not guinea pigs.”

In this post, I explore some of the ethics issues of clinical trials conducted by groups in developed countries but carried out in developing countries.

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Empty gym.

Are COVID Waivers Enforceable? Look to Gym Waivers for Insights

By Sunnie Ning

Salons, movie theaters, gyms, churches — if you have been somewhere recently that is indoors or requires close personal contact, chances are, you have encountered a COVID liability waiver. But how enforceable are they?

Liability waivers, which stand at the intersection of torts and contract law, are a matter of state law. They have been on the rise as a contractual solution to tort problems since the 1980s, and are now common for recreational and sporting activities with higher-than-normal risks. However, no court has adjudicated on the enforceability of a COVID liability waiver yet, and the unique nature of the pandemic makes it difficult to predict how courts will rule.

Standard gym and health club waivers, operating outside the context of a pandemic, may provide insights into the enforceability of COVID waivers.

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